Bronze Age

Sidon appears in history during the fourteenth century with king Zimridda of Sidon allying himself to the King of the Hittites against the Pharaoh of Egypt.

Iron Age

 From the ninth century BC onwards, the kings of Assyria underwent military expeditions to the Mediterranean Sea, exacting heavy tribute as they marched on. At the time of Luli King of Sidon, Sennacherib arrived at the head of a large army in front of the city's gates to punish the king who refused to pay tribute. During the six century BC, Nebuchadnezzar, Babylon's mighty king, passed by Sidon but during thirteen years lay siege to Tyre. Sidon gained from this setback, and for a time commercial leadership shifted to the Sidonians. 

Persian Period

 In the beginning of the fifth century BC. Sidon provided men and fleet for Cyrus king of Persia and in the naval battles with the Greeks, the king of Sidon sailed with the Persians as a trusted advisor and ally. Persia's kings maintained their royal residence and cavalry in the city, thus rendering Sidon prosperous. In the second half of the fifth century BC. Phoenicia allied itself with Greece against the Persians. In 392, Sidon supported Evagora's revolt in Cyprus, and Tyre supplied him with twenty ships; in 362, Straton the Philhellene drew Sidon into the famous "revolt of the Satraps" and in 346, Tennes' uprising resulted in the destruction of Sidon by its own inhabitants. Following the rebellion, political pressure from Persia may have led to the installation of a tyrannical regime under Straton II (345/344 BC.); Sidon's political forces did not regain power until the arrival of Alexander the Great.

Hellenistic period

 The arrival of Alexander the Great in the East ushered in the Hellenistic Age. In 198 BC. Sidon came under the sway of the Seleucids, but was to become autonomous in 111 BC. Pompey recognized Sidon's independence in 64 BC. And granted it the right to mint coins

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